Finnish Gods

Finnic mythology is the mythologies of the Finnic peoples, such as the Volga Finns, Baltic Finns, Permians, and Sami.

The mythologies of the Finno-Lappic speakers have some common aspects; the Sami people are deeply shamanistic and these traits are present also in Finnish-Karelian mythology. Baltic Finnic mythologies are also related to shamanism in Siberia on one hand, and to Indo-European Baltic and Germanic mythologies on the other. Especially the mythologies of the Baltic Finns were directly influenced by their Indo-European neighbors, the Scandinavians, the Slavs and the Baltic peoples. One aspect in common to many of the Finnic peoples is the myth that the world is created from an egg. Another central aspect of these mythologies has been astronomy, that includes several Milky Way myths and ideas about the existence of the World tree or pillar while the star formations were thought to represent animal spirits.

Finnish mythology is the mythology that went with Finnish paganism which was practised by the Finnish people prior to Christianisation. It has many features shared with fellow Finnic Estonian mythology and its non-Finnic neighbours, the Balts and the Scandinavians. Some of their myths are also distantly related to the myths of other Finno-Ugric speakers like the Samis.

Some Finnish Gods;

Ahti (or Ahto) - god of the depths, giver of fish.

Ajatar (sometimes Ajattara) - an evil forest spirit.

Akka ("old lady") - female spirit, feminine counterpart of "Ukko".

Äkräs - the god of fertility and the protector of plants, especially the turnip.

Antero Vipunen - deceased giant, protector of deep knowledge and magic.

Hiisi - demon, originally meaning a sacred grove, later a mean goblin.

Iku-Turso - a malevolent sea monster; probably same as Tursas.

Ilmarinen - the great smith, maker of heaven. Designed the Sampo mill of fortune. Originally a male spirit of air.

Ilmatar - female spirit of air; the daughter of primeval substance of creative spirit. Mother of Väinämöinen in Kalevala.

Jumala - a generic name for a major deity. Originally the name given by the Finns to the sky, the sky-god, and the supreme god. Later taivas and Ukko were used as the names for the sky and the sky-god. The word means god and was later used for the Christian God. The origin of the word is  – some possible explanations are derivation from Jomali, the supreme deity of the Permians and origination from the Estonian word jume.

Kalevanpoika (son/man of Kaleva) - a giant hero who can cut down forests and mow down huge meadows, identical with Estonian national epic hero Kalevipoeg.

Kave - ancient god of sky, later the deity of the lunar cycle. Father of Väinämöinen.

Kotitonttu - tutelary of the home.

Kullervo - tragic antihero. Model for Túrin Turambar in Tolkien's Silmarillion.

Kuu - goddess of the Moon.

Lemminkäinen (Ahti Saarelainen, Kaukomieli) - a brash hero.

Lempo - originally a fertility spirit,[citation needed] became synonymous with demon in the Christian era.

Lalli - Finn who slew Bishop Henry on the ice of Lake Köyliö, according to a legend.

Louhi - the matriarch of Pohjola, hostess of the Underworld.

Loviatar - the blind daughter of Tuoni and the mother of Nine diseases.

Luonnotar - spirit of nature, feminine creator.

Menninkäinen - a fairy spirit, gnome.

Mielikki - wife of Tapio, the goddess of the forest.

Nyyrikki - the god of hunting, son of Tapio.

Näkki - the fearsome spirit of pools, wells and bridges. Same as Nix.

Otso - the spirit of bear (one of many circumlocutory epithets).

Pekko (or Pellon Pekko) - the god of crops, especially barley and brewing.

Perkele - the Devil. Originally a god of thunder, Perkele was demonized with the introduction of the Christian religion. Related to Baltic Perkunas and Norse Thor.

Pellervo (or Sampsa Pellervoinen) - the god of harvest.

Pihatonttu - tutelary of the yard.

Piru - spirit, demon. Probably later loan word related to "spirit".

Päivätär - the goddess of day.

Rahko - the Karelian god of time; Rahko tars the moon describes the phases of the moon.

Surma - the personification of a violent death.

Saunatonttu - tutelary of the sauna.

Tapio - the god of the forest.

Tellervo - the goddess of the forest, daughter of Tapio and Mielikki.

Tonttu - generally benign tutelary. Originally, a patron of cultivated land, keeper of lot.

Tuonetar - name referring to both the mistress and the daughter of Tuoni.

Tuoni - the personification of Death.

Tursas - the Tavastian god of war. May be same as the Norse Tyr and the Germanic Tîwaz.

Tuulikki - daughter of Tapio and Mielikki, goddess of animals.

Ukko ("old man") - the god of the sky and thunder, related to Thor (Estonian Taara).

Vellamo - the wife of Ahti, goddess of the sea, lakes and storms. A current image of Vellamo can be seen on the coat of arms of Päijät-häme.

Vedenemo ("mother of waters") - Karelian goddess of water

Väinämöinen - the old and wise man, who possessed a potent, magical voice. The central character in Finnish folklore and he is the main character in the Kalevala.

Kyöpelinvuori (Raatikko) - where women who die as virgins go, and later a place where witches meet at Easter.

Tuonela (also Manala, Pohjola) - abode of the dead, Underworld.

Pohjola Aarnivalkea - an eternal flame marking the spot of buried treasure

Lintukoto - a mythical place where migratory birds where believed to live in wintertime, the word is used as a metaphor for a happy place in Finnish.


Pantheons Index